Definition of Biotechnology: Types and Examples (Modern and Conventional) – Biotechnology is the branch of science that studies the use of living things such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and so on, including enzymes and alcohol from living creatures in the production process in producing goods and services .
The development of biotechnology today is not limited to biology, but also applies to other branches of pure applied science such as biochemistry, computers, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, bio-chemistry, mathematics and other branches of science.
So biotechonology can be concluded as applied science that combines various branches of science in the process of producing goods or services.
Types of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is divided into several types or branches of science which are associated with color, namely:
– Red Biotechnology (Red Biotechnology) is a branch of biotechnology that studies biotechno applications in the medical field.
This biotechnology coverage is the entire spectrum of human medicine from the preventive, diagnosis and treatment stages.
– White / gray biotechnology is biotechnology that is applied in industries such as the development and production of new compounds as well as the manufacture of renewable energy.
– Green biotechnology, namely studying the application of biotechnology in agriculture and animal husbandry.
In agriculture, biotechnology plays a role in controlling plant pest attacks.
In the field of animal husbandry, biotechnology is used to produce important products such as goats, cows, sheep and chickens which are used as producers of protective antibodies that can help body cells recognize and fight foreign compounds.
– Blue biotechnology is also called aquatic or aquatic biotechnology which can control the processes that occur around the aquatic environment.
Conventional and Modern Biotechnology
The types of biotechnology that we generally know are conventional biotechnology and modern biotechnology.
1. Conventional Biotechnology
The first type of biotechnology is conventional biotechnology.
The definition of conventional biotechnology is a number of fields of science from the application of biological, biochemical, and engineering that are still very limited.
In biotechnology, the process has not used molecular engineering techniques that have complex, structured and directed levels.
Although using molecular engineering techniques, the engineering that is used is certainly not all can be controlled properly.
This conventional biotechnology uses living bodies in the natural environment.
In contrast to conventional biotechnology, modern biotechnology uses complex, structured and directed engineering techniques.
So that the end result can be controlled very well.
The technique used in biotechnology today is to carry out a genetic manipulation process using structured and directed living bodies so that the results are as desired.
In modern biotechnology processes always use the structure of DNA.
The technique used by modern biotechnology is a manipulation technique of genetic material such as DNA carried out in vitro, if you do not know what is in vitro I explain in the paragraph below.
Understanding in vitro is a process from biological sciences that can take place in experimental situations that occur outside the cell or outside the organism.
For example, in a test tube.
In this technique we usually know it as recombinant DNA techniques or genetic engineering techniques.